Islam The Only Way To ALLAH


Q 1. Who is the Creator, Controller, Maintainer and Owner of the whole world?
A. He is One Allah. He alone is the Supreme Creator of everything irrespective of mankind (all creatures) and their actions. He alone controls the whole universe and causes the evolution and transformation of His creatures from one condition into other thereby to develop them to the perfection. He creates actions (to be done till the end of time) with His Wisdom and Command. He is the Owner of the earth and the sky. We are His mere servants. Our entity and everything belongs to Him. All these wonders and phenomena of the earth and the sky which defy human attainment and science are self-proofs of the fact that all these things have neither come into being by themselves nor can sustain unless created and sustained by the All-powerful Creator and Sustainer Who can be none but Allah alone, the Unique, the Subduer, the Lord of Majesty and Bounty.

Q 2. What does Allah mean?
A. Allah is the proper and personal name of God Who is Eternal, Self-existent and embodies all attributes of goodness, glory and perfection and is free from all blemishes.

Q 3. What does "Sifaat-e-Kamaaliah" mean?
A. Allah Almighty is Self-existent. His Person possesses all excellences, best attributes and perfection and is beyond all blames, shortcomings and weakness. Such great attributes, Allah Almighty is possessed of, are called "Sifaat-e-Kamaaliah".

Q 4. How many "Sifaat-e- Kamaaliah" are there?
A. Allah Almighty is the perfect embodiment of innumerable attributes and excellences. Of which nine are the most prominent. However, the remaining attributes belong to these nine ones directly or indirectly: (1). "Hayaat" (Self-Existence, Eternity), (2). "Qudrat" (Omnipotence, All-powerfulness), (3). "Iraadah-o-Mashi-yat"(the will to do what He wills), (4). 'Ilm (Omniscience, All-knowledge), (5). "Samta"(All-hearing), (6). "Basar"(All-seeing), (7). "Kalaam" (Speech,Word), (8). "Takveen-o-Takhleeq" (Creativeness) and (9). "Razzaaqi-yat" (Provision of subsistence, food).

Q 5. What does "Hayaat" mean?
A. "Hayaat" means "Haiee" (Eternally living). He is not only Himself living but also infuses life into all things (creatures) and makes them survive and then annihilate them when He wills.

Q 6. What does the attribute "Qudrat" mean?
A. "Qudrat" means "Qadeer" (Omnipotent, All powerful). Allah Almighty is Omnipotent and is All-able to do what He wills. Nothing is out of His control and beyond His Power. He can create a (living) thing out of nothing and destroy a living into nothing. He may crown a beggar and dethrone a king throwing him in ignominy. He may evolve or create a particular effect in a thing when He wills and may strip a thing of its effect or replace with any other efficacy or potency.

Q 7. Does Allah also have the command of lie?
A. Allah Almighty is free from every sort of defect and imperfection like lie, fraud, dishonesty, tyranny, ignorance, shameful acts etc. He is beyond and high above all blemishes. To say or consider that Allah Almighty has also the command of lie is the worst sin and denial of Allah's perfection in every respect. Lie is such an abhorring act that nobody wants it to be attributed to him even a sweeper and "Chamaar" (the lowest caste Hindu).

No Muslim can think so about his Creator (Allah) even a Jew and Christian can not brook such nonsense about their God. He who attributes such an abomination to Allah is worse than a Jew and Christian.

Q 8. What does "Iraadah-o-Mashi-yat" mean?
A. Allah Almighty is possessed of the attribute of "will and intention". Nothing can happen unless He wills and intends. He creates and develops each and every thing with His intention and will. His no action or creation is unintentional. What has happened or is happening or will happen is all with His eternal will. Nothing is binding on Him nor anyone can question His authority. He is All-independent and Supreme Sovereign to do or to command what He wills.

Q 9. What does the attribute of 'Ilm mean?
A. 'Ilm means 'Aleem (Omniscience, All-knowing). Allah Almighty embodies the attributes of "Omniscience". His knowledge is eternal and infinite which encompasses each and every thing. He has the eternal knowledge of what has come to pass or is comming to pass or will come to pass. Things change but there is no change in His eternal knowledge. Nothing is concealed from His vision even the tiniest particle of dust. He sees all hidden and open and visible and invisible things alike. Self-Omniscience is His trait.

Q10. What is meant by the attribute of "Sam'a-o-Basar"?
A. Allah Almighty is Samee' (the All-hearing) and "Baseer" (the All-seeing) which means that "Sam'a" and "Basar" are His attributes. He hears sound even at the lowest pitch and sees the most thin and tiniest thing which can not be seen even by the microscope.

Q11. What does the attribute "Kalaam" mean?
A. The attribute "Kalaam" means Allah Almighty has the command of speech. He speaks to His Prophets when He wills without the aid of tongue as He hears and sees sans the ears and eyes since these things are limbs and parts of the body and Allah Almighty is Pure and free from such things. His "Kalaam" does not need sound or voice and is eternal like His other attributes. All the Divine books and the Holy Qur-aan which we read and write are also eternal. Our reading (recitation), writing, hearing and committing the Holy Qur-aan to memory is "Haadis"(created act) and what we have read (recited), written, heard and committed to memory is "Qadeem"(eternal).

Q12. What are these afore-mentioned seven attributes called?
A. "Hayaat" (Life, Self-existence), "Qudrat" (Omnipotence), "Sam'a" (the All-hearing), "Basar" (the All-seeing),' Ilm ( Omniscience), "Iraadah"(the Will) and "Kalaam" (Speech, Word) are the Self-attributes of Allah.

Q13. What does "Takveen-o-Takhleeq" mean?
A. "Takveen-o-Takhleeq" means creation of all the worlds. Allah Almighty is the Supreme Creator Who has created all the universes and will create what He wills. Each and every thing is His creature like "Arb'a ' Anaasir" (the four elements - fire, water, air and the earth of which the world and men are composed) and even the tiniest particle of dust. He is neither incapable of nor He needs anyone's help for creation. If He wills to create anything He simply says "Kun" (be) and that immediately comes into being. All men and their words and actions are His creation. The attributes of causing death, life, health, sickness, richness, poverty etc. which concern the mankind and other creatures are called extra,additional attributes or attributes of actions. These sub-attributes are subject to "Sifaat-e-Takveen"(the attributes of creativeness).

Q14. What is meant by "Sifat-e-Razzaaqi-yat"?
A. "Sifat-e-Razzaqi-yat" means Allah Almighty is "Razzaaq" (Provider of Subsistence,food). He provides subsistence to all His creatures irrespective of the smallest and the biggest one. He alone brings up His creatures, sustains the whole world and develops and evolves each and every thing to the full bloom.
He is the Sovereign Lord and Cherisher of all the worlds and the Real Provider of Subsistence. The angels are a mere means of the Divine system to this effect.

Q15. What are "Sifaat-e-Sulbi-yah"?
A. "Sifaat-e-Sulbi-yah" are those from which Allah Almighty is Pure and free like: He is not ignorant, powerless, incapable, blind, deaf, dumb, tyrant, He has no figure, He is free from time and space, direction, movement, changes, eating, drinking and all human needs and activities. He is also Pure and high above any sort of assimilation, affiliation and alliance like ice which on being put into the water becomes water. He has no father, no son, no wife nor His ilk(s).

Q16. Is "Deedar" (sight) of Allah possible or not?
A. Allah's "Deedar" (sight) in the mortal world is an exclusive privilege for His Beloved Prophet Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa (may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him) and in the next world every "Sunni Muslim" (true believer) will be graced with Allah's Sight which is the greatest blessing in paradise.

As for Allah's Deedar (Sight) in dream and through the eyes of heart, the Prophets even saints have been honoured with.

Hadrat Imam-e-A'zam Abu Haneefah (may Allah be pleased with him) was blessed with Allah's Sight a hundred times.

May Allah Almighty also grace us with the greatest blessing - Aameen.

Q17. Does Allah Almighty need any cause or interest for His doings?
A. Each and every action of Allah Almighty carries numerous "Hikmah" (hidden causes,uses,blessings and favours) which are known only to Him. His doings need no cause or interest i.e. are not intended to be useful to Him. His created things are causes for one another.

The eye sees, the ear hears, the fire burns and the water quenches thirst, but He can change function and effect of these things if He wills like the eye may begin to hear, the ear to see, the water to burn and fire to quench thirst and if He does not will no one even millions of people can not see mountain in the broad day-light and a raging fire can not burn a straw. How dreadful fire was that in which Prophet Abraham(peace be upon him) was thrown by infidels but it was turned into a heavenly garden for him. Allah Almighty said (addressing to the fire): O' fire! be you cool and safety for Abraham.


Q 1. What wisdom is there in the descent of the Prophets?
A. There is a great wisdom and blessing in the descent of the Prophets. Through the Prophets and Messengers, Allah Almighty has informed His creatures (mankind) about the works which please or displease Him. It is a fact that nobody can know the correct ideas of the other until he is informed by the latter so how the mankind could have known the pleasure and displeasure of Allah Almighty without being told by His Prophets and Messengers. Nobody could have known about the torment and reward, the world hereafter, the correct mode of worship and the fundamentals, pre-requisites and manners of worship etc. what to talk of an access to Him or understanding His Self and Attributes.
The Prophets and Messengers who are chosen servants of Allah Almighty are intermediary between Him and His servants (mankind). They were created and sent down by Him to guide and invite the mankind towards Him, so that no humanbeing could make any excuse on the Doomsday that he was not given His message.
Those who follow and obey Allah's Prophets are the blessed ones and those who oppose them are the accursed.

Q 2. Can the mind alone guide humanbeing or not?
A. Had Allah Almighty left us at the mercy of our mind then we would not have fully attained to the path of blessing and salvation. We have examples of intellectuals and thinkers before us who have no concurrence and consensus on even a simple point despite possessing expertise in their respective field of activity.
It is, therefore, established that the mind alone could not have helped man to correctly know about the spirituAlity, invisible world and the next world and it were only the Prophets who led him to the path of blessing and salvation.

Q 3. All the Prophets were humanbeing. What was the divine wisdom therein?
A. It is also a great wisdom and blessing of Allah Almighty that He chose all the Apostles, Messengers and Prophets from amongst the humanbeings. If He had sent the Prophets from amongst the angels or other creature they would not have understood human nature, psyche, failings and nor they had any affection for us as a man has for his fellow-beings. We also had no inclination towards him and could not follow him too.

Q 4. What is "Wahee"?
A. The literal meaning of "Wahee" is "instillment of a point in the heart" and according to Shari'ahh "Wahee" means Divine revelation to the Prophets for the guidance of mankind. It is a Divine practice that Allah Almighty does not directly speak to His servants (humanbeings) and for this purpose He has created His chosen servants (Prophets) to whom He reveals His commands and then these Prophets teach and inform His servants about the good and bad.

Q 5. How many ways of the revelation of "Wahee" are there?
A. There are four ways of the revelation of "Wahee" to the Prophets:
1. To hear any Divine voice.
2. To have any point spontaneously instilled in the heart.
3. To have the true dreams. Whatever is shown or told to the Prophet in dream is undoubtedly true.
4. Communication of the Divine message through angel in the guise of humanbeing.

Q 6. What does "Ilhaam" mean?
A. Sometime Allah's saint (Walee) is divinely inspired either in the waking or in dream which is called "Ilhaam" (divine inspiration).

Q 7. What is "Wahee Shaitaani"?
A. Inculcation of some evil things in the hearts of his accomplices like sorcerers, wizards, unbelievers and "Faasiq" (wicked,transgressors) by devil, the outcast, are literally called "Wahee Shaitaani" (devilish prompting).
These wicked souls teach one another how to inveigle and drag people into the mire of disbelief, sins and in their devilish activities. However, the pious servants of Allah are not prone to their inveiglings who immediately recite "Laa-haul" i.e. "Laa haula walaa Quwwata Illaa Billaa-hil 'Alee-yil 'Azeem" (there is no power in me to save myself from sin and I have no power to do good but with the help of Allah, the Most High, the Most Great) on facing any devilish onslaught and busy themselves in good deeds.

Q 8. How many Prophets did Allah Almighty send?
A. A particular number about the descent of the Prophets should not be fixed or determined as there are varied traditions to this effect. Besides, there is a great apprehension of denial of the Prophethood of any Prophet or inclusion of any non-prophet into the fold of Prophethood due to fixation or determination of a specific total number of the Prophets, which is infidelity. That's why we must believe in all the Prophets of Allah sans any fixation of total number.

Q 9. Were the Prophets sent for every state and every nation?
A. It is proved by the Holy Qur-aan that Allah Almighty has sent His Prophets to every state and every nation who invited them to the true faith and commanded them to worship Allah alone so that infidels and deniers could not claim that no Prophet had communicated them the true faith. The Communicator of Allah's commands (faith) to His servants may either be Prophet or his vice regents i.e. 'Ulama (religious scholars).

Q10. Can we call "Raam" and "Kirshan" whom Hindus believe Prophet or not?
A. We believed (in detail) in those Prophets about whom Allah Almighty and His Prophet have informed us or about whose names and lives the Holy Qur-aan and the Prophet's traditions (Ahaadees) have told us in detail and in the remaining other Prophets of Allah we believed in brief. It is not essential for us to unnecessarily search out whether such and such was the prophet or not.
There is no mention of Raam and Kirshan in the Holy Qur-aan and Ahaadees and also we have no proof whether they were really some persons or are only the figment of Hindus' imagination. If it is, for the sake of argument, accepted that there is some mention of them in Hindus' books then we will also have to accept that the said books also speak of their sinfulness, impiety, bad character and debauchery. Hence, they can not be prophets because the Prophets are innocent and impeccable and they are free from sins on being looked after and taught by Allah Almighty Himself.
Briefly, we can not determine about anybody's prophethood unless and until proved by the Holy Qur-aan and Ahaadees.

Q 11. Do Allah's Prophets have 'Ilm-e-Ghaib (the knowledge of the unseen)?
A. Undoubtedly, Allah Almighty has endowed His Prophets with the knowledge of unseen. Each and everything in the heavens and on the earth is in their knowledge. This knowledge of unseen is not their own but a divine gift to them. "Nabi" (Prophet) means the communicator of "Ghaib" (the news and knowledge of unseen). The communication of the news of unseen like Paradise, Hell, Doomsday, torment and reward etc. which are beyond human agency and reason, is the demand of the exalted status of Prophet. Some saints had/have also Ilm-e-Ghaib which Allah Almighty grant(ed) to them through the Prophet whose Ummah (community) they belong(ed) to.


Q 1. Who is the best of all creatures of Allah?
A. Our Holy Prophet Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa (may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him) is the best, highest and most prominent of all creatures of Allah since Allah Almighty has concentrated all excellences and miracles in the Holy Prophet which he had granted individually to His other Prophets. Allah Almighty has also gifted him some exclusive excellences in which no Prophet has any share. What excellences and miracles all the Prophets got were, in fact, given to them through the agency of Allah's Beloved Prophet Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa (may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon
him). Nobody is similar to the Holy Prophet in any way and if anyone likens anyone to him in any attribute is surely a misguided and may be an infidel.

Q 2. Please summarise the excellences and greatness of the Holy Prophet?
A. 1. Allah Almighty has conferred upon him the exclusive title of "His Beloved(Darling)". All creatures seek Allah's pleasure but Allah Almighty seeks the pleasure of His Darling Elect.
2. All creatures (the past, present & future) even Prophet Abraham, Khaleelul Laah (Allah's friend) are indebted to him.
3. "Shafa'at-e-Kubraa" (a particular authority of intercession) on the Doomsday is one of his excellences.
4 .Love for the Holy Prophet is the pivot of Islaamic faith, nay, the Prophet's love is the real Eimaan (Islaamic faith).
5. Obedience to the Holy Prophet is, indeed, obedience to Allah Almighty. No one can obey Allah unless and until he follows the Holy Prophet.
6. To respect, revere and hold the Holy Prophet in the highest esteem is one of the fundamentals of Islaam and is obligatory upon every believer.
7. The respect and reverence of the Holy Prophet is as much obligatory today as it was in his (apparent) lifetime.
8. Looking down on any word, deed or action or condition of the Holy Prophet and disregarding any Sunnah intentionally is infidelity.
9. The Holy Prophet Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa (may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him) is the "absolute viceregent" of Allah Almighty. All the worlds and universes are under his administrative control where his orders are executed without anybody's interference.
10. Allah Almighty has provided him with all things even the keys of heavens and hell have been given to him. Bounties, favours, subsistence etc. are distributed among Allah's creatures through his agency.
11. He has the executing authority of the commands of Shari'ah with the power of declaring anything "Haraam"(unlawful) or "Halaal"(lawful) and he can grant concession even in obligatory acts.
12. He was the first to be honoured with the Prophethood. Allah Almighty took covenant from all Apostles, Messengers and Prophets (to be sent to the world) that they would believe in him and help him and that on this condition they were installed in the exalted offices of the Prophethood.
13. The Holy Prophet Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa (may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him) is also the Prophet of all the Prophets. They were all his Ummati (followers) and acted as his (Holy Prophet's) viceregent during their respective tenure of Prophethood.
14. Allah Almighty has made him "manifestation" of His Ownself and then illumined all the worlds with his "Noor" (light). Thus the Holy Prophet is present everywhere.

Q3. What were the manners and habits of the Holy Prophet?
A. The impeccable life of the Holy Prophet is the best model for every individual and folk. His manners and habits are glittering pearls.

The brief description of his exalted person is that he had pleasing countenance, he was affable, taciturn, he extensively remembered Allah, he was sick of shameful acts and frivolities, never abused or cursed anybody, loved and helped indigent and poor people, did not look down on any beggar and did not consider any king bad on account of his kingship, did not differentiate between slave and master and Negro and Turkish, was hospitable even to the prisoners of war, he welcomed even his arch enemies, never stretched out his feet while sitting in gathering, always anticipated in greeting (Salaam) and extended his (blessed) hands for handshake, did not interject anyone's talk, cut short his Nafl(voluntary prayer) if any needy approached him and would resume the prayer after meeting his need, took the trouble to do his own work but did not ask anybody for it because of shyness, sat on the ground sans any bedding or carpet, did not hesitate to do domestic chores, stitched his cloths, dust the house, milked goats, helped the servant in his work and also ate food with him, bought things from market himself and savoured whatever (lawful) food was put before him. The Holy Prophet was very kind to his family members and servants and merciful to everyone. He did not expect anything from others. He held his head low in humility. One would get awed if came across him but would be enamoured of him if enjoyed his company even for a while. He was the most brave, fearless and generous. He would immediately meet the need made by any needy. He was the most tender hearted, sober and so modest that he did not gaze at anybody. He neither lost his temper nor avenged personal matters but would anger if any command of Allah was defied and in such state nobody could have faced him. The Holy Prophet kept remembering Allah profusely and shunned frivolities. He liked fragrance and disliked stench. He respected the scholars. Sometimes he talked light heartedly but in a dignified way. Hadrat' Aishaah Siddiqa (may Allah be pleased with her) has said that "Khulq" (manners,disposition) of the Holy Prophet was the Glorious Qur-aan i.e. the Holy Prophet liked and disliked what the Holy Qur-aan liked and disliked.

Q 4. How many miracles did the Holy Prophet perform?
A. The miracles which took place at the hands of the Holy Prophet are numerous and superior to those of all other Prophets like his excellences and greatness over them. The Holy Prophet is a splendid agglomeration of the qualities, excellences and miracles that were individually found in other Prophets.

The descended Sun rose again on his command, the moon split into two when he made a sign with his (blessed) finger, the water gushed forth from his fingers, he fed a large party from a little food to their fill, a little quantity of milk satisfied a large number of people, pebbles and stones recited "Tasbih" (remembrance of Allah) on his command, a dry log cried and wept in his love, trees and stones greeted and saluted him, trees rushed to his presence removing roots from beneath the ground on his call, beasts and other dreaded animals submitted and surrendered on the mention of his name, thousands of his prophesies came true which are not only proved by the Holy Qur-aan and Ahaadees but have also been acknowledged by the non-Muslims in their books. Another great miracle of the Holy Prophet is that he purified the squalid souls of the barbaric people of the Arabia infusing in them an entirely new outlook based on monotheism (Tauheed) and righteousness (Taqva) and thus his sworn enemies became his staunch supporters and votaries.

Besides, the miracles of the other Prophets were material and perceptional ones and that too were confined to their persons and times. As against this, the Holy Qur-aan (the great miracle of the Holy Prophet) is still in the hands of believers all over the world with its original text. The Holy Qur-aan is an ever-living and ever-challenging miracle of the Holy Prophet before which all enemies and powers of the world i.e. mankind and Jinns(genies) are helpless.

Q 5. What does it mean that the Holy Prophet is "Rahmatal-lil-' Aalameen"?
A. "Rahmat" means to love, pity, sympathise, comfort, share anybody's trouble and inquire ater somebody's welfare and "Aalam" means the world i.e. all creatures of Allah Almighty. "Aaalameen" is plural of "Aalam". Thus Allah Almighty has, by declaring the Holy Prophet "Rahmatal-lil-Aalameen" (mercy for all the worlds), made it clear that the mercy of His Beloved Prophet is as much general for all as is His Divinity. The Muslim scholars say that every bounty and favour irrespective of small or big, physical or spiritual, celestial or terrestrial, visible or invisible, from the very creation of the world todate, from now to the Doomsday and from the Doomsday to eternal time was given, is given and will be given to believer or disbeliever, obedient or disobedient, angel or humanbeing, Jinn(geni) or animal but to all excepting Allah Almighty through the agency of the Holy Prophet. He is the chief viceregent of Allah and owner of all boons and bounties of the worlds as the Holy Prophet himself said: "Innamaa Anaa Qaasimoon wal Laahu M'otee" (Allah Almighty is the Provider and I am distributor). In short, the "Rahmatal-lil 'Aalameen" means that all bounties, favours and grants of Allah Almighty to His creatures are distributed through His Darling Elect Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa (may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him).

Q 6. What is the belief of Sunni Muslims about the "knowledge of the Holy Prophet"?
A. It is the consensus of all Sunni Muslims (Ahle Sunnat wal-Jama'at) that the knowledge of the Holy Prophet is as perfect as he is the most prominent and highest of all the Prophets in every respect. Allah Almighty has endowed him with the knowledge of all the worlds and opened up the vistas of "Ilm-e-Ghaib" (the knowledge of the unseen) for him which is borne out by a number of Qur-aanic verses and numerous traditions (of the Holy Prophet).
All the universes, the earth, the heavens,skies and all creatures (mankind) from the time of Prophet Adam onwards (till the Doomsday) i.e. all the past and future peoples were presented to the Holy Prophet. He beheld them all and recognises each and every man so much so that we can not recognise our own friend so well. He is Alive to the state, intention, plans and fear and apprehension of his Ummah, as he himself said that Allah Almighty has removed all veils for me so I see the world and what has to happen till the end of time as I behold my palm(of the hand). This knowledge of all the worlds and of the unseen is a bit of the knowledge which Allah Almighty has gifted to him. The profundity and extent of his knowledge is known only to the Bestower of knowledge i.e. Allah Almighty or to the Prophet himself. It must be kept in mind that "Ilm-e-Ghaib" (the knowledge of the unseen) is Allah's Own Attribute whereas the "Ilm-e-Ghaib" of the Prophets and saints is "granted gifted" one. No creature (humanbeing) can know about "the unseen" unless Allah Almighty favours him with this honour. It is absurd and against the Qur-aanic verses and traditions to say that nobody can know about "the unseen" even on being endowed with "Ilm-e-Ghaib" by Allah Almighty. "Surah Jinn" is indicative of the fact that Allah Almighty has graced His chosen Prophets with "Ilm-e-Ghaib". The Islaamic history is replete with the "prophecies" of the Prophets and fore-tellings of Allah's saints that it will rain on such and such day or time; is foetus in mother's womb baby boy or baby girl, what will he/she do in his/her life and when and where will die etc. and all the prophecies and fore-tellings came true.


Q 1. Who are called "Khulfaa-e-Raashideen"?
A. Those great and pious companions who were elected Caliphs in succession after the Holy Prophet are called "Khulfaa-e-Raashideen" (the true Caliphs of the faithfuls) and their Caliphate is called "Khilaafat-e-Raashidah" (the true Caliphate). Hadrat Saiey-yidinaa Abu Bakr Siddique (may Allah be pleased with him) was the first Caliph, Hadrat Saiey-yidinaa 'Umar-e-Farooque (may Allah be pleased with him) was the second and Hadrat Saiey-yidinaa 'Usman-e-Ghani (may Allah be pleased with him) and Hadrat Moula 'Ali Murtaza (may Allah be pleased with him) were the third and fourth Caliph respectively. After Hadrat Ali, his eldest son Hadrat Imaam Hasan Mujtaba (may Allah be pleased with him) became Caliph of the faithfuls and remained in the office for about six months. His Caliphate is also included in "Khilaafat-e-Raashidah".

Q 2. How long did the "Khilaafat-e-Raashidah" last?
A. The total span of "Khilaafat-e-Raashidah" which was modelled on "Shari'ahh" i.e. in consonence with the teachings of the Holy Qur-aan and the Holy Prophet, was thirty years. It culiminated at the end of six months' Caliphate of Hadrat Saiey-yidinaa Imaam Hasan (may Allah be pleased with him). Later on, Hadrat Umar bin Abdul Aziz's Caliphate was called "Khilaafat-e-Raashidah".

During the time of proximity to the Doomsday there will be the Khilaafat-e-Raashidah of Hadrat Saiey-yidinaa Imaam Mehdi (may Allah be pleased with him).

Q 3. Who is the most prominent of "Khulfaa-e-Raashideen"?
A. Hadrat Siddique Akbar (may Allah be pleased with him) is the most prominent and highest of all creatures barring Apostles, Messengers and Prophets and next to him are Hadrat Farooque A'zam, Hadrat Usman-e-Ghani and Hadrat Moula Ali (may Allah be pleased with them) in rank respectively.

Q 4. What about that person who considers Hadrat Moula Ali superior to all "Khulfaa-e-Raashideen"?
A. He who considers Hadrat Moula Ali superior to Hadrat Saiey-yidinaa Siddique Akbar or Hadrat Saiey-yidinaa Farooque Azam (may Allah be pleased with them) is a misguided, infidel and is out from the fold of "Ahle Sunnat wal Jama'at". Hadrat Ali(may Allah be pleased with him) has said himself that any person who considers him superior to Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique or Hadrat Umar Farooque, is denier of all companions of the Holy Prophet and warned that he would severely lash such a misguided man. Undoubtedly, Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique (may Allah be pleased with him) is the highest of all men after the Holy Prophet and Hadrat Umar and Hadrat Usman (may Allah be pleased with them) are next to him in superiority.

Q 5. What about that one who does not acknowledge the Caliphate of Hadrat Siddique Akbar, Hadrat Faarooque Azam and Hadrat Usman-e-Ghani (may Allah be pleased with them)?
A. All companions of the Holy Prophet had complete concurrence and consensus on "Khulafaa-e-Salaasah" i.e. the Caliphates of Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique, Hadrat Umar Farooque and Hadrat Usman-e-Ghani (may Allah be pleased with them) in succession. The whole Muslim community has been acknowledging these three great companions of the Holy Prophet as "Khaalifah" (successor,Caliph of the Holy Prophet) since the very day(s) the said companions were installed in the office(s) successively. Even Hadrat Moula Ali, Imaam Hasan and Imaam Husain (may Allah be pleased with them) had acceded to their Caliphats and sworn allegiance to them during their respective tenure of office. They also held them in high esteem and spoke of their greatness and excellences. Any one who does not accept their Caliphats or says them usurper is, indeed, misguided and disbeliever.

The Caliphate of Hadrat Siddique Akbar (may Allah be pleased with him) is undeniably established by cogent and potent proofs. Hence, he who denies his Caliphate is, of course, out from Islaamic fold.

Q 6. Which companions of the Holy Prophet are called "Shaikhain" and "Khatanain"?
A. The first Caliph Hadrat Siddique Akbar and the second Caliph Hadrat Umar Farooque Azam (may Allah be pleased with them) are called "Shaikhain" and the third Caliph Hadrat Usman-e-Ghani and the fourth Caliph Hadrat Moula Ali (may Allah be pleased with them) are called "Khatanain". The Holy Prophet Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa (may Alllah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him) married Hadrat A'Ishaa Siddiqa (may Allah be pleased with her) daughter of Hadrat Siddique Akbar and Hadrat Hafsa (may Allah be pleased with her) daughter of Hadrat Umar Farooque Azam. This exclusive honour which the Holy Prophet conferred upon these great companions made them "Shaikh" pi." Shaikhain" (venerable). The Holy Prophet graced Hadrat Usman-e-Ghani by giving his daughter Hadrat Ruqaieyah (may Allah be pleased with her) in marriage to him and after her death his second daughter Umm-e-Kulsoom(may Allah be pleased with her) was married to him and graced Hadrat Moula Ali by giving his "beloved daughter" Hadrat Beebee Faatemah Zohra(may Allah be pleased with her) in marriage to him. These great companions are thus called "Khatanain". "Khatan" pi."Khatanain" means son-in-law and "Shaikh" means father-in-law. However, it must be kept in mind that to call "Shaiekhain" as fathers-in-law and "Khatanain" as sons-in-law is derogatory and strictly forbidden. Some Muslim scholars have gone to the extent of describing such words as disbelief, infidelity.

Q 7. Please explain in brief about Khulfaa-e-Raashideen?
A. 1. The first Caliph Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique (may Allah be pleased with him).
His name is Abdullah and titles are "Siddique" (the truthful) and "Ateeque" (free from hell-fire). He was born in the Holy Makkah about two years after the birth of the Holy Prophet. He was very rich and greatly respected in his clan. He was the first in men to embrace Islaam and was also the first believer to offer prayer with the Holy Prophet. He devoted himself to the Holy Prophet and lost in his love since the very day he embraced Islaam so much so that he never separated himself from the Holy Prophet except with permission and migrated with him alone to the holy Madinah leaving his family in holy Makkah. He sacrified all his wealth and belongings to the cause of Islaam.

His greatness is proved by various Qur-aanic verses and numerous Prophetic sayings.
The Holy Prophet has said that "it is incumbent upon my Ummah to love Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique (may Allah be pleased with him) and be thanful to him. He was unanimously elected the first Caliph of the faithfuls after the Holy Prophet (apparently) passed away and his Caliphate proved to be a divine blessing for all believers.
On 7th Jamaadi-II, 13 A.H.(Monday) he took bath which caused him high temperature because it was a very cold day. He remained sick for fifteen days and at last passed away on 22nd Jamaadi-II (Tuesday) at the age of 63.
He remained Caliph for about two years and seven months.

2. The second Caliph Hadrat Farooque Azam (may Allah be pleased with him).
His name is Umar, Kuniya(surname) is Abu Hafs and title is Faarooque (the one who distinguishes between right and wrong).

He was born after thirteen years of the "Year of Elephant" (i.e.when Abrahah, the Christian chief of Yemen and his army had invaded Makkah riding on elephants). He belonged to a prominent family of Quresh. He embraced Islaam in the sixth year of Call (of Prophethood) at the age of 27. After having embraced Islaam he took believers to the holy Ka'bah with dignity and openly with the permission of the Holy Prophet. His conversion to Islaam proved to be of immense value to the promotion and glory of Islaam. The Muslims were delighted and disbelievers and infidels were shocked.

His greatness and excellences are proved by a number of Qur-aanic verses and Prophetic sayings. Once the Holy Prophet said that "every angel in the heavens respects (Hadrat) Umar and every Satan on the earth trembles with fear of him".

Hadrat Imaam Jaafar Saadique (may Allah be pleased with him) has expressed his sickness of those who speak ill of Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique and Hadrat Umar Farooque (may Allah be pleased with them). Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique (may Allah be pleased with him) during his illness had nominated Hadrat Umar Farooque(may Allah be pleased with him) Caliph of the faithfuls after consultation with Hadrat Moula Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) and other companions. He assumed the reins of Caliphate in the month of Jamaadi-II and remained in the office for over ten years. During his Caliphate Islaam was glorified and spread far and wide. Innumerable states inclusive of Persian and Roman empires were conquered and the banner of Islaam was held aloft everywhere.
He was martyred by a fire-worshipper (Zoroasterian) Abu Lulu in Zilhij, 23 A.H. and buried in the hallowed tomb of the Holy Prophet adjacent to Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique(may Allah be pleased with him). He was 63.

3. The third Caliph Hadrat Usman-e-Ghani (may Allah be pleased with him):
Usman bin Affaan is his name. He was born after six years of the "Year of Elephant". He embraced Islaam on the invitation of Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique. The Holy Prophet gave his two daughters i.e. Hadrat Ruqaieya and Hadrat Umm-e-Kulsoom in marriage to him. He is, therefore, called "Zulnoorain" (the possessor of two lights, a reference to the daughters of the Holy Prophet who were married to him). This is an exclusive honour as there is no like of it in human history that any Prophet had given his two daughters in marriage to any person but Usman-e-Ghani. He was very handsome and smart. His greatness and excellences are vindicated by numerous Prophetic sayings which also speak of the esteem in which the Holy Prophet held him. After embracing Islaam he had adopted a practice of freeing a slave on every Friday which he kept up till his death. During the last days of his Caliphate Hadrat Umar Farooque (may Allah be pleased with him) had constituted "Shoora" (consultative body) to elect his successor. Hadrat Usman-e-Ghani(may Allah be pleased with him) was unanimously elected third Caliph by the faithfuls who swore their allegiance to him after three days of the burial of Hadrat Umar Farooque. He remained Caliph for twelve years and attained martyrdom in 25 A.H. He was 82.

4. The fourth Caliph Hadrat 'Alee Murtaza (may Allah be pleased with him):
'Alee is his name and "Kuniya" (surname) is Abul Hasan and Abu Turaab. He was the first in teenagers to embrace Islaam. He never worshipped idols like Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique (may Allah be pleased with him). The Holy Prophet gave his daughter "Khaatoon-e-Jannat" (the lady of paradise) Hadrat Fatimah(may Allah be pleased with her) in marriage to him. He was invincibly brave and undaunted. "Saadaat Kiraam" and "Aulaad-e-Rasool" (family, posterity of the Holy Prophet Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa [may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him]) spread out from the wedlock of Hadrat Faatemah and Hadrat' Ali (may Allah be pleased with them). The sainthood originated from his family and millions of saints are guiding others to the path of righteousness all over the world receiving benefits and favours from the fountain-head of his spiritual knowledge and intellect.

His greatness and excellences are borne out by Qur-aanic verses and Prophetic sayings. The Holy Prophet once said: Seeing (Hadrat) 'Ali is a sort of worship. After the death of Hadrat Usman-e-Ghani (may Allah be pleased with him), the third Caliph, Hadrat Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) was elected the fourth Caliph by all the companions who were then present in holy Madinah and they swore allegiance to him. The battle of "Jamal" (camel) between him and Hadrat A'Ishaa Siddiqa (may Allah be pleased with her) took place in 36 A.H. and in Safar, 37 A.H. the battle of Siffin between him and Hadrat Mu'awiyah (may Allah be pleased with him) was fought which ended on a treaty reached between them. Hadrat Moula Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) crushed insurgency of a mischief-makers' sect "Kharijites". A Kharijite Ibne Muljim martyred him on 17th of Ramadaan, 40 A.H. He was about 65. He remained in the office for four years and nine months.


Q 1. What is "Bid'at"?
A. "Bid'at" is that thing or deed which was not done during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet but was innovated later. "Bid'at" is of two kinds i.e. "Bid'at-e-Zalaalat" or "Bid'at-e-Saie-yah" (evil innovation) and "Bid'at-e-Mahmoodah" or "Bid'at-e-Hasanah" (good, virtuous innovation).

Q 2. What is "Bid'at-e-Saie-yah"?
A. "Bid'at-e-Saie-yah" is that innovation which is not proved by the Holy Qur-aan, Holy Prophet(Sunnah) and "Ijma-e-Ummah"(consensus of Muslim scholars) or belongs to such a thing that is forbidden by the Shari'ah.

Bid'at-e-Saie-yah (evil innovation) is either "Makrooh" (undersirable) or "Haraam" (unlawful) as the case may be.

Q 3. What is "Bid'at-e-Hasanah"?
A. Bid'at-e-Hasanah is that innovation which is proved by the Holy Qur-aan, Holy Prophet (Sunnah) and "Ijma-e-Ummah" or belongs to such a thing whose goodness or desirability is proved by the Shari'ah. Bid'at-e-Hasanah is "Mustahab" (desirable, commendable), Sunnat and even "Waajib" (essential) as the case may be.

Q 4. Is that thing Bid'at-e-Saie-yah or not which was innovated after "Sahaabah" and "Taaba'een"?
A. Declaring any innovation "Bid'at-e-Saie-yah" or Bid'at-e-Hasanah" does not depend on time but hinges to conformity and non-conformity of the newly invented thing with the Holy Qur-aan, Sunnah and Ijma-e-Ummah. The innovation which is consistant with Qur-aan-o-Sunnah is not at all Bid'at-e-Saie-yah regardless of time and age. During their (respective) times, "Sahaabah"(Holy Prophet's companions), "Taaba'een" (Successors to Companions) and "Taba1 Taaba'een" (Successors to Companions' Successors) forbade some of innovations and permitted certain of them.

Once Hadrat Farooque Azam (may Allah be pleased with him) said about "Taraawih"(special night prayers in the holy month of Ramadaan) "this is a good innovation", though Taraawih is "Sunnat-e-Muakkadah" (emphasised,regular Sunnah). Hadrat Abdullah bin M'aqal(may Allah be pleased with him) who once noticed his son reciting "Bismillahir Rahma-nir-Raheem" aloud in prayer said: O' my son!it is an innovation. Beware of innovations and avoid them.

It is clear by the given examples that these great personages measured every innovation by the yardstick of Shari'ah. They permitted only those innovations to stay which were in consonance with the teachings of Islaam and forbade those which were repugnant to Shari'ah.

The Holy Prophet has himself described the one as "innovator of Sunnah" who innovates a good or virtuous thing. This saying of the Holy Prophet permits "good and virtuous innovations". The innovator of virtuous thing whether it is about worship or manners will keep earning cumulative reward on being followed/practised by successive believers till the Doomsday.

However, every Tom, Dick or Harry can not innovate a certain thing and describe that as good innovation. It is an exclusive domain of Muslim scholars to innovate any good or virtuous thing i.e. "Bid'at-e-Hasanah" and allow its practice by believers in any age or time. The followers of such "Bid'at-e-Hasanah" will not be called "Bid'ati"(heretic) but "Sunni"(the followers of Sunnah).

Q 5. What is sin and how many kinds of it are there?
A. Disobeying Allah and His Prophet and not to follow the commands of Shari'ah are sin. The one who commits sin is called sinner. Sin distances believer from Allah Almighty, deprives him of blessings and renders him liable to be chastised. Sins are of two kinds i.e. minor and major.

Q 6. What is minor sin?
A. Minor sin is that one about which there is no "Wa'eed" (warning of dire consequences) i.e. no particular punishment has been defined by Islaam. Minor sins of a believer are vitiated/forgiven by the blessings of his worship, goodness, alms-giving, obedience to parents etc.

An "Hadees" to this effect says: Allah Almighty remits all the past and future sins of a believer from him who perfectly performs "Wudu"(ablution). In short, minor sin is forgiven even without begging forgiveness of Allah Almighty provided the delinquent believer does not insist on it. Insistance on minor sin turns it into major sin which is not absolved unless sincerely repented and Allah's forgiveness is sought.

Q 7. What is major sin?
A. Major sin is that one about which there is "Wa'eed" (warning of dire consequences) i.e. Islaam has warned believers of severe punishment. A believer can not rid himself of major sins unless he sincerely repents and begs forgiveness of Allah Almighty.

Q 8. Which are major sins?
A. Some of major sins which have been defined by "Qur-
aan-o-Hadees" are: unjust killing, theft, usurpation of orphan's property(right), teasing parents, indulgence in interest, drinking wine, false witness, non-observance of "Saum-o-Salaat"(fasts and prayer), non-payment of "Zakaat"(poor due), swearing false oath, less weighing and less measuring, unjust fighting with believers, accepting or offering bribe, sneaking against a believer before the rulers, backbiting against believers, forgetting the Holy Qur-aan committed to memory, disgracing Muslim scholars, despondency about Allah's mercy(forgiveness), fearlessness of Allah's wrath, extravagance, wasting money and time in sport and other frivolities, shaving the beard and committing suicide.

Q 9. Is he Muslim who commits major sins?
A. A believer who commits major sins will definitely be entered into heavens either by the grace of Allah Almighty or by the intercession of the Holy Prophet or after having served the term of his punishment and then he will never come out from it i.e. the paradise will be his permanent abode.

Q10. How will the major sins be forgiven?
A. There are two kinds of major sins i.e. non-observance of "Huqooq-ullah"(duties towards Allah) and violation of "Huqooq-ul-'Ibaad"(human rights). The major sins concerning non-observance of "Huqooq-ullah" like non-offering any time's obligatory prayer or non-observance of any day's fast may be forgiven by Allah, the Most Forgiving, provided that the delinquent believer sincerely repents and seeks His forgiveness and also resolutely determines to improve himself and not to repeat the major sins. He ought to make up for the missed "Fard" (obligatory) and "Waajib"(essential) prayers and fasts if he owes to.

Contrary to this, the major sins relating to "Huqooq-ul-'Ibaad" like one hurts anybody's faith, grace, life, property or even the heart(for example he abuses, beats or speaks ill of someone) back-bites, thieves or snatches or robs him of his belonging/property or takes money or anything in bribe, in interest or wins in gambling will not be forgiven by Allah Almighty despite the fact He is the Owner of our life, property and rights and can pardon us, but this is the rule of His Divine Court that forgiveness is not granted to the oppressor until and unless the oppressed forgives him. Allah Almighty has empowered us regarding "Huqooq-ul'Ibaad" whose violation will not be absolved until we forgive the violator and the aggrieved pardons us in case we have violated the other's rights.

Q11. What is meant by "Taubah"(begging forgiveness of Allah) and how is it sought?
A. "Taubah" means to turn towards Allah in penitence or to beg Allah's forgiveness for one's sins. Three factors are sine qua non for "Taubah" i.e. to acknowledge sins the one has committed, to repent and to resolve to avoid them and compensation for sins like "Qaza, Qada" i.e. missed,omitted prayers are must to be offered.

One should not be despondent about the grace and mercy of Allah Almighty Who is the Most Forgiving and Merciful. Procrastination in seeking forgiveness of Allah is unbecoming of a believer and also death keeps no calender so it must be hurried.

One should, while making "Du'aa"(supplication), include all believers in it to ensure its acceptance by the means of any "loved ones" of Allah, if he is not himself deserving.

A "Hadees" in this regard says: the one who seeks forgiveness of Allah for all male and female believers, will keep earning "Du'aa" of all posterity of Prophet Adam untill his death. The "Du'aa"(supplication) which is made in the company of or through or at the shrines of saints(loved ones) of Allah is not turned down but definitely answered particularly made through the agency of Allah's Beloved Prophet Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa(may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him). The Holy Qur-aan to this effect says: "and if when they oppress their souls, then O' beloved(Muhammad)! they should come to you and then seek forgiveness of Allah and should the Messenger intercede for them, then they will certainly find Allah, the Most Relenting, the Most Merciful" (Al-Nisa:64).

The pious companions of the Holy Prophet used to visit the blessed grave of the Holy Prophet for the fullfilment of their needs and "Adiyah[pl.of Du'aa] (supplications).
Making "Du'aa" through the "loved ones" of Allah is proved by the Prophet Adam since he had sought forgiveness of Allah for his lapse by the means of Allah's Darling Elect Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa (may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him). His "Du'aa" was immediately answered.


Q 1. What does "Taqleed" mean?
A. "Taqleed", according to Shari'ah, means to take somebody's words and deeds for oneself as "argument" or "reason" considering him one of those who are "authority" on code of Islaam and Islaamic jurisprudence without referring to Shari'ah as we follow the suit of Hadrat Imaam Azam Abu Hanifa (may Allah be pleased with him) in "Masaa-il-e-Shari'ah" (religious affairs and issues) without any consideration whether he has explained or resolved such and such issue according to the Holy Qur-aan or Sunnah or "Ijma-e-Ummah"(consensus of Muslim scholars) or by his own judgement. "Taqleed" (conformation) is "Waajib" (essential). The believer who follows any Imaam's suit is called "Muqallid" (conformist,follower) as we are "Muqallid" of Imam Azam Abu Hanifa(may Allah be pleased with him).

Q 2. In which matters is "Taqleed" to be done?
A. There are three kinds of religious matters of Islaam: (1).Beliefs:These must be understood well and firmly committed to the heart. Beliefs are the principles of Islaamic faith. Therefore, these are immune from amendment and revocation and even omission or addition. (2).The clear-cut "commands" of the Holy Qur-aan and Sunnah like obligatory prayers five times a day, fasts (of the holy month) of Ramadaan, Hajj, Zakaat (poor-due) etc. "Ijtehaad" (independent interpretation of Islaamic matters) or "Qiyaas" (opinion, judgement) of any "Mujtahid"(the jurist who exercises his independent opinion) has nothing to do with the "commands". (3).Those commands which have been derived from "Qur-aan-o-Hadees" through "Ijtehaad" (consensus). In such fundamental beliefs "Taqleed" is not to be done. Likewise the express "commands" of the Holy Qur-aan and Holy Prophet are exempt from "Taqleed". Our conformation to (following the suit of) Imaam Azam Abu Hanifa (may Allah be pleased with him) in religious affairs and issues is not on the ground that he has enjoined to do so but because "Qur-aan-o-Hadees" have expressly commanded in these respects. The third kind of religious matters is those which have been derived from "Qur-aan-o-Hadees" and "Ijma-e-Ummah" (consensus of Muslim scholars). "Taqleed" in such affairs is binding upon a "Ghair-Mujtahid" (non-jurist). As against this, it is forbidden for a "Mujtahid".

Q 3. Who is "Mujtahid"?
A. "Mujtahid" is the mature and sane (male) Muslim who possesses extra-ordinary intellect and wisdom to fathom and grasp the niceties, subtelities and essence of the Qur-aanic chapters and verses in the true sense of their divine meaning. He ought to have mastery of Arabic grammer and syntax and eloquence in the language; be knowledgeable about the annulling and annulled injunctions (of the Holy Qur-aan); have the minutest knowledge of all Qur-aanic verses and sayings of the Holy Prophet concerning "commands" and well-versed in infering solution of all religious affairs and issues from "Qur-aan-o-Hadees" knowing well their "source" and "argument" that such-and-such matter or issue has been resolved in the light of so and so Qur-aanic verse or Hadees. Besides, he must be a man of cultivated and pleasant genious and sagacity.

Q 4. What is "Fiqah" and who is "Faqih"?
A. "Aa-imah Mujtahideen"(Muslim scholars,theologians) collected "Massa-il-e-Shari'ah" (assorted Islaamic matters, issues) and "Commands of Shari'ah" which were scattered here and there throughout the Holy Qur-aan and "Ahaadees" (Prophetic sayings) and those affairs,issues which were arrived at through "Ijma-e-Ummah" (consensus of Muslim scholars) and "Qiyaas" (opinionjudgement) and compiled them topic-and-chapter-wise for the facilitation of believers. This voluminous collection is called "Fiqah" (Islaamic jurisprudence). To follow these "Masaa-il-e-Shari'ah" is, in fact, to follow "Qur-aan-o-Hadees" and "Ijmaa-e-Ummah". Those learned ones who have expertise in the knowledge of "Fiqah" are called "Faqih" pi. "Fuqaha" (Islamic jurists).

Q 5. What is "Mazhab"?
A. A constitution of Islamic laws and principles or articles of faith of any "Imaam Mujtahid" (the Muslim leader who is authority on "code of Islaam") which he has inferred from "Qur-aan-o-Hadees" and "Ijmaa-e-Ummah" in respect of "Furoo'ee Masaa-il" (non-essentials, subsidiary affairs,issues) is called "Mazhab" (creed). "Deen-e-Islaam" (Islamic religion) is the basis and "Mazhab" is its branch.

Q 6. How many "Mazhabs" are found at present in the Muslim world?
A. According to a saying of the Holy Prophet "Sawaad-e-Azam" (vast majority of Muslims following Sunnah) is the only sect which would find good (salvation) in this world and the next world. This biggest sect of the believers is "Naaji"(blessed one,deserving paradise) i.e. "Ahle-Sunnat-wa-Jama'at" comprising all four "Mazhabs" (Hanfi, Maaliki, Shaafa'i and Hanbli). It has been a practice of the whole Muslim Ummah (community of the Holy Prophet) since the time of Taba' Taaba'een (successors to companions' successors) until now that he who is not himself a "Mujtahid" conforms to (follow the suit of) any "Mujtahid". That's why, the prominent "Ulama", "Fuzala", "Mohaddiseen" and "Mufassireen" (Muslim scholars, the doctors well-versed in traditions and experts in Qur-aanic exegises) conformed to any of the four Imaams putting aside their valuable reseaches and became, ipso facto, "Muqallid" (conformists, followers).

Hadrat Imaam Bukhari, Imaam Muslim (may Allah shower His mercy on them) and other scholars, doctors of traditions,narratives whose "Ahaadees" books are considered to be the most authentic in the Muslim world did "Taqleed" (conformed to) throughout their lives and so did the great saints like Hadrat Ghous-e-Azam and Hadrat Khowaja Gharib Nawaz (may Allah have mercy on them). In brief, none but only the said four Imaams have to be conformed to, even though his "beliefs" be in line with any Qur-aanic verse, saying of the Holy Prophet or sayings and actions of the Prophet's companions. The one who is out of the fold of any of the four "Mazhab" is a misguided, misguider, disbelieving and heretic one because he makes his own way in the religion unlike all other Muslims. An "Hadees" in this context says: the believer who separated himself from the major sect of Muslims has, indeed, strayed for hell.

Q 7. What about he who claims to follow all the four "Mazhabs"?
A. The one who does not follow the suit of (conform to) any of the four Imaams but claims to be a follower of all the four, actually tries to hoodwink and inveigle people into unruliness. Acting upon the directives of all four "Mazhabs" means that these "Mazhabs" of the great leaders of Ahle Sunnat have some un-Islamic things and thus one Mazhab can not be followed but instead the lawful things of all "Mazhabs" be chosen and followed discarding the unlawful ones. Such an absurd notion which brings disgrace and disrepute to all Muslim leaders and scholars who not only did "Taqleed" themselves of only one of the four Imaams throughout their lives but also enjoined their followers to do the same makes the claiment of this nonsense himself a misguided and disbeliever and he is one of those who are out of the Islaamic-fold. Following all the four "Mazhabs" simultaneously is like: there are four straight ways leading to a set goal and people adopt any of them to reach the destination but a man shouts and advises them not to adopt only one way but take all the four to attain to the goal. Nobody heeds to him and continue their journey to the destination having chosen only one from them. Being frustrated, he himself goes ahead with his silly plan. He takes one way and abandones it half-way adopting the other. He leaves it too incomplete and rushes to the third one and then to the last one but finishes up with futility. (An English maxim to this effect: "a rolling stone gathers no moss"). Is this man a sensible or a lunatic? Judge yourself. In short, it is obligatory on every Muslim to remain adhered to the "Mazhab" of his Imaam. In case of dessertion from his "Mazhab" no excuse will be accepted in the Divine Court and he will be damned. Believers must hold all the four "Imaams" in high esteem and consider them "Ahle Sunnat". Their followers and conformists are also on the righteous path.

No "Mazhab" of any "Imaam Mujtahid" can be termed as "Bid'at"(heresy). The one who says it "Bid'at" is, according to Muslim scholars, himself a heretic, disbeliever and renders himself culpable for hell.

Q 8. Who are "Ashaa'irah" and "Maaturidiyah" in Ahle Sunnat?
A. We have already told you that nobody's "Taqleed" in fundamental beliefs is lawful except in subsidiary affairs,issues. Ahle Sunnat are divided in two groups on some subsidiary affairs,issues i.e. "Maaturidiyah" who conform to Hadrat Imaam Abu Mansoor Maaturidi (may Allah shower His mercy on him) and "Ashaa'irah" who follow Hadrat Imaam Shaikh Abul Hasan Ash'ari (may Allah shower His mercy on him). Both these Imaams are Ahle Sunnat and on the righteous path. Their difference on subsidiary affairs, issues is like that of "Hanafi" and "Shaafa'i". They do not term each other as misguided or disbelieving one even "Faasiq-o-Faajir" (disobedient, transgressor).

Q 9. Which type of "Taqleed" has been described 'bad' in Qur-aan-o-Hadees?
A. Some people follow such rites of their forefathers concerning marriage and death matters which are repugnant to "Shari'ah and insist on observing them even though those are un-Islaamic. Such "Taqleed" has been denounced by "Qur-aan-o-Hadees". Describing "Taqleed-e-Aa-imah" (conformation to the great Imaams) unlawful in the light of these Qur-aanic verses and Prophetic sayings is nothing but disbelief. No believer can dare to give up Qur-aan-o-Hadees and follow Imaam's words and deeds over-riding Allah and His Prophet's commands considering that his salvation lies in it.

All believers act upon the commands and directives of Qur-aan-o-Hadees as researched and interpreted by these great Imaams and that's why they are called "Muqallid".

Q10. What are the names and titles of the Imaams of four Mazhabs?
A. The four Imaams are:

1. Hadrat Imaam-e-A'zam Nu'maan bin Saabit (may Allah be pleased with him): His title is Abu Hanifah. He was born in Kufa (city) in 80 A.H. He is the founder of "Fiqah" viz: Hanafi. His "Ijtehaadi Masaa-il" (those affairs, issues which he derived from Qur-aan-o-Hadees through his independent judgement, opinion) are spread and being followed in the Muslim world particularly in great Islaamic states for about 1200 years as his "Mazhab" abounds with the basics and dynamics of efficient governance. A majority of believers in the Muslim world is his follower. No Aa-imah (the four great Imaams) but he has the distinction of seeing and enjoying the company of the Holy Prophet's companions.

He died in Baghdad Sharif in 150 A.H. His popularity and the esteem in which he was held can be gauged from the fact that his first funeral prayer was attended by about fifty thousands people and since people kept coming in, therefore his funeral prayer was held six times consecutively to facilitate his disciples and votaries to attend it.

His shrine is in Baghdad and is one of the sacred and prominent places situated there.
Hadrat Imaam Bukhari(may Allah have mercy on him) is one of those great Islamic scholars, jurists and traditionists who were his (Abu Hanifa's) students' students.
His "Muqallids" (followers, conformists) are called "Hanafi".

2. Hadrat Imaam Muhammad bin Idrees Shaafa'I (may Allah be pleased with him): His title is Shaafa'i. The year of the death of Hadrat Imaam Abu Hanifa and the year of the birth of Imaam Shaafa'i is the same i.e. 150 A.H. He was born in Asqalaan. His title is also Abu Abdullah and he is Haashmi-Qureshi-Muttalabi by lineage. He was matchless in Islaamic jurisprudence and the knowledge of Qur-aan-o-Hadees besides other sectors of learning. He was also peerless in "Zuhd-o-Taqva" (piety and continence), generosity and magnanimity.

He died at the age of 54 in 204 A.H. His shrine is in Qaraana (Egypt). His "Muqallids" are called "Shaafa'i".

3. Hadrat Imaam Maalik bin Anas (may Allah be pleased with him): He was born in holy Madinah in 95 A.H. His "Kuniyah" (surname) is Abu Abdullah. All Muslim scholars of his time acknowledged him as their "Imaam". Hadrat Imaam Shaafa'i is one of his prominent students. Numerous great Muslim scholars and jurists gained a lot from his fountain of knowledge.

He had unbounded love for the Holy Prophet and due to this attachment he spent his whole life in sacred Madinah.

He died at the age of 84 in holy Madinah in 179 A.H. and his shrine is also there. His "Muqallids" are called "Maaliki".

4. Hadrat Imaam Ahmed bin Hanbal (may Allah be pleased with him): He was born in Baghdad Sharif in 164 A.H. and was also brought up there.

His greatness, Islaamic knowledge and audacity in braving trials and torture for Islaam are no secret. During the time of Caliph Maamoonur Rasheed a mischievous issue of whether the Holy Qur-aan is creation of Allah or His Kalaam (speech, word) was stirred. Imaam Hanbal stood like a rock against the mischief facing horrendous troubles and torture and did not allow any harm to come to Islaam. He died at the age of 77 in Baghdad in 241 A.H. His "Muqallids" are called "Hanbli".


Q 1. What does "Istilaah-e-Shar'i" mean?
A. A specified meaning of any word taken by "Shari'ah" is called "Istilaah-e-Shar'i" (technical term of Shariah).

Q 2. How many commands of Shariah are there?
A. The commands of Shariah are of two kinds i.e. "Amr" (command, enjoining good) and "Nahi" (prohibition, forbidding evil). The first kind of Shariah's commands is called "Maamooraat" (commanded duties) and the second kind is called "Manhiyaat" or "Mamnoo'aat" (prohibited things). "Amr-o-Nahi" (commands and prohibitions) are eleven. Of these five are "Amr"(commanded duties, acts) i.e. "Fard" [Farz] (obligatory act), "Waajib" (essential act), "Sunnat-e-Muakkadah"(emphasised Sunnah), "Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah" (non-emphasised Sunnah) and "Mustahab" (desirable, commendable act), five ones are "Nahi" (forbidden acts, things) i.e. the worst of these is "Haraam" (unlawful) act and then are "Makrooh Tahreemi" (odious to the extent of being forbidden), "Isaa'at" (bad but less than odious), "Makrooh Tanzihi" (undesirable) and "Khilaaf-e-Ola" (those things, acts which are against Sunnah, decency) and the last (eleventh) one is "Mubah" (neither lawful nor unlawful).

Q 3. How many kinds of obligatory acts are there and what is the definition of each of them?
A. There are two kinds of "Fard" (obligatory acts) i.e. "Fard-e-E'tiqaadi" (definite obligatory act) and "Fard-e-'Amali" (indefinite obligatory act but to be fulfilled). "Fard-e-E'tiqaadi" is that command of Shariah which is proved by the definite arguement,reason beyond any doubt. Its denier is, according to Hanafi scholars, an absolute infidel. There is "Ijma" (consensus of Muslim scholars) that the one who denies any "Fard-e-E'tiqaadi" whose obligation is commonly known and manifested by the Islaamic faith, is not only himself an infidel but also he who doubts about the infidelity of the denier.

In short, the one who abandons any "Fard-e-E'tiqaadi" like Salaat, Rukoo, Sujood (prayer, bowing, prostration), unless permitted by Shariah, is "Faasiq" (disobedient, transgressor), committer of major sin and deserves the torment of hell. "Fard-e-'Amali" (indefinite obligatory act but to be fulfilled) is that command of Shariah which is not proved by any definite argument,reason but it is "obligatory" in view of the consensus of "Mujtahids" (Islamic jurists) based on Shar'i reason to such an extent that one will not be relieved of the obligation unless he fulfills it. The worship which has "Fard-e-'Amali" will be nullified if it is not observed. Its intentional denial is disobedience, transgression and misguidance.

However, a Mujtahid can differ with it on the ground of any Shar'i reason,argument like the differences of "Aa-imah Mujtahideen" (the great four Imaams) that one Imaam considers a thing "Fard" but the other thinks otherwise. For instance, one-fourth "Masah" (passing wet fingers over the head) of the head during ablution is obligatory (Fard) according to Hanafi creed, of one hair is enough for Shaafa'ees and of the entire head as per Maaliki tenets. Every believer (Muqallid) must follow his Imaam's Mazhab in "Fard-e-'Amali". To do against the teachings of one's Imaam, unless permitted by the Shariah, is not lawful.

Q 4. How many kinds of "Fard-e-'Amali" are there?
A. Fard-e-'Amali are of two kinds i.e. "Fard-e-'Ain" (strict obligation) and "Fard-e-Kifaayah" (an obligation which will be fulfilled even if performed by a few Muslims).

Fard-e-'Ain is the duty which ought to be performed by every sane matured Muslim like prayer five times a day.

Fard-e-Kifaayah is a general duty of believers whose performance by only some Muslims will absolve all and if not performed by even a single believer then all will be held responsible for the sin like washing the dead and funeral prayer.

Q 5. How many kinds of "Waajib" are there?
A. "Waajib" are of two kinds like "Fard" i.e. "Waajib-e-E'tiqaadi" and "Waajib-e-'Amali". Waajib-e-E'tiqaadi is that injunction of Shariah whose essentiality is proved by "Daleel-e-Zanni" (a tradition reliably transmitted by one or a few people). "Fard-e-'Amali" and "Waajib-e-'Amali" are its two kinds. Waajib-e-'Amali is that injunction of Shariah (or "Waajib-e-E'tiqaadi) whose non-fulfilment will not cause believers sin. But its essentiality is stressed. If Waajib-e-'Amali is missed in worship in which its observance was essential then the worship will be defective but fulfilled.

However, leaving out any Waajib intentionally once is minor sin and more than one (repeating it a few times) is major sin.

Q 6. How many kinds of Sunnah are there?
A. There are two kinds of Sunnah i.e. "Sunnat-e-Muakkadah" which is also called "Sunan-ul-Huda" (regular, emphasised practice of the Holy Prophet) and "Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah" which is also called "Sunan-ul-Zawaa-id" and also "Mustahab" and "Mandoob" (irregular,non-emphasised but praiseworthy practice).

Q 7. What is "Sunnat-e-Muakkadah"?
A. Sunnat-e-Muakkadah is the injunction of Shariah which was regularly fulfilled by the Holy Prophet but was occasionally missed so that it might not become "Fard" (obligatory) for his Ummah or that act which has been emphasised upon by the Shariah.

Q 8. What about he who ignores "Sunnat-e-Muakkadah"?
A. The believer who fulfills Sunnat-e-Muakkadah will earn reward but in case he abandons it without any cogent reason, deserves condemnation. It is sinful to develop an habit of its abandonment which will render him "Faasiq" (disobedient,transgressor) and he will also deserve the torment of hell though its sin is less than that of abandoning "Waajib". Evidence of such man is unacceptable. Some Mulsims scholars maintain that the abandonment of Sunnat-e-Muakkadah is near to "Haraam"(unlawful) act and its "Taarik" (abstainer) might be (God forbid) deprived of the intercession of the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa(may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him) is reported to have said: the one who abandons my Sunnah will not enjoy my "Shafaa'at (intercession).

Q9. What is "Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah" and what injunction is there to this effect?
A. "Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah" is that injunction of Shariah which has not been emphasised upon but ignoring it is an undesirable act. However, no chastisement has been specified to this effect. Fulfilment of Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah will earn believer reward whereas its habitual abandonment invites Divine anger.

Q10. What is "Mustahab"?
A. "Mustahab" is that injunction of Shariah whose fulfilment is commendable,desirable in Shariah whether it was practised by the Holy Prophet himself or believers were motivated to do it or the Muslim scholars liked it even though it is not proved by "Ahaadees".

It is rewarding to fulfill "Mustahab" but no offence if not done.

Q11. How many kinds of forbidden things,acts are there?
A. "Mamnoo'aat-e-Shariah"(prohibitions of Shariah) are of five kinds i.e. "Haraam-e-Qat'ai" (absolutely unlawful), "Makrooh Tahreemi"(odious to the extent of being forbidden), "Isaa-at" (bad but less than odious), "Makrooh Tanzihi" (undesirable) and "Khilaaf-e-Ulaa" (acts,things inimical to Sunnah, decency).

Q12. What is "Haraam-e-Qat'ai"?
A. "Haraam-e-Qat'ai" is that prohibition of Shariah whose unlawfulness and forbidding are proved by the cogent and unquestionable argument,reason. This is the opposite of "Fard" (obligatory act). Its intentional commission amounts to major sin and transgression. It is obligatory on and rewarding for believers to refrain from it to their best.

Q13. What is "Makrooh Tahreemi"?
A. "Makrooh Tahreemi" is that prohibition of Shariah whose forbidding is proved by undeniable reason. This is the opposite of "Waajib"(e-ssential act). It is sinful to commit it as it renders worship defective though its sinfulness is less than that of "Haraam". Repetition of Makrooh Tahreemi is tentamount to major sin.

Q14. Can "Makrooh Tahreemi" be called "Haraam" or not?
A. The difference between "Haraam" and "Makrooh Tahreemi" is based on beliefs like the denier of unlawfulness of "Haraam-e-Qat'ai" is infidel whereas the one who denies the forbidding of "Makrooh Tahreemi" is not infidel. Abstention from Makrooh Tahreemi is essential as it is obligatory on believers to eschew "Haraam" and on this ground Makrooh Tahreemi may be called "Haraam". Muslim scholars sometimes describe "Haraam" as "Makrooh".

Q15. What is "Isaa'at"?
A. "Isaa'at" is that prohibition of Shariah whose forbidding is not so strong as it is for "Haraam" and "Makrooh Tahreemi" but its commission is bad. The one who occasionally commits it deserves Divine anger and in case of being habitual he is culpable for torment. "Isaa'at" is the opposite of Sunnat-e-Muakkadah".

Q16. What is "Makrooh Tanzihi"?
A. "Makrooh Tanzihi" is that prohibition of Shariah whose commission is considered undersirable in Shariah. However, its undesirability is not to the extent of "Wa'eed"(warning of dire consequences). The one who avoids it earns goodness and reward and in case of commission he is liable to neither torment nor Divine anger.

"Makrooh Tanzihi" is the opposite of Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah".

Q17. What is "Khilaaf-e-Ulaa"?
A. "Khilaaf-e-Ulaa" is that prohibition of Shariah whose commission is against decency. It is better for believer to avoid it but he would not be held accountable if committed. Its avoidance is praise-worthy. "Khilaaf-e-Ulaa" is the opposite of "Mustahab".

Q18. What is "Mubaah"?
A. "Mubaah" is that thing,act for which there is neither any command nor prohibition that is neither permitted nor forbidden. Therefore, its commission and non-commission brings the committer no reward and no torment like taking delicious food and fine cloths provided it is not done for pomp and show.

Q19. Does any "Mubaah" act,affair need any Shar'i reason or not?
A. Those who say or claim that such and such act,affair is lawful or "Mubaah" need no Shar'i argument,reason for its lawfulness in the absence of any Shar'i reason on its prohibition and thus it is itself a cogent proof of its lawfulness. Had such act,affair been wrong or unlawful the Shariah would have definitely admonished and commanded to abstain from it.

Q20. Can any "Mubaah" act,affair be called "Haraam" or "Bid'at" as a precausionary measure or not?
A. The Holy Qur-aan has been sent down and Islaam perfected. No new command or prohibition is to come to us. So pardone has been determined for all those acts, affairs about which no prohibition is proved by the Shariah. It is, indeed, very kind of Allah Almighty and His Messenger who have left such things to us. The Holy Prophet has himself said that whatever Allah Almighty has declared "lawful" in His holy book (Qur-aan) is lawful for you and whatever has been declared unlawful is unlawful for you and that thing is also permitted for which there is no command or prohibition.

Allah Almighty Himself says in the Glorious Qur-aan: and whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take (i.e. follow that) and whatsoever he forbids you, refrain from that.

In view of these saying of the Holy Prophet and command of Allah Almighty it becomes clear that an act,affair about which there is neither any command nor prohibition, is neither "Waajib"(essential) nor a sin but "Mubaah"(forgiven act). The one who describes any act,affair as forbidden, unlawful or odious should either prove its badness or that Shariah (Qur-aan-o-Hadees) has forbidden it or there is consensus of Muslim scholars on its unlawfulness.

Calling or declaring any act,affair "Haraam" or "Makrooh" until and unless proved by the Shariah is no wisdom as it imposes unnecessary limitations on believers.
Besides, such measure is also tentamount to creating a new "Shariah". Every believer must avoid such things.

Those "Mubaah" acts,affairs which are done with the spirit of love and reverence like "Mehfil-e-Meelaad" (commemoration of the Holy Prophet's birth), recitation of "Salaat-o-Salaam"(invocation of Allah's blessings & peace on the Holy Prophet) in standing position are desirous and highly rewarding ones. That's why "Ahle Sunnat wa Jama'at" is in agreement and has consensus on arranging and holding "Mehfil-e-Meelaad" programmes.

Q21. Can "Sunnat" be called "Nafl" or not?
A. "Nafl" (pl.Nawaafil) is that permissible and lawful act which is neither "Fard"(obligatory) nor "Waajib" (essential). So it is a common (lawful) word which is also applicable to "Sunnat"(pl.Sunan). Therefore, Muslim jurists have also explained about and commented on "Sunan"(Prophet's practices, sayings) in their books of Islaamic jurisprudence. However, if there is any particular thing about "Sunan", those are explained separately.

Q22. How many Shar'i reasons,sources are there by which these Shar'i commands are proved?
A. There are four Shar'i reasons,sources i.e. the Holy Qur-aan, Ahaadees, Ijma-e-Ummah and Qiyaas.

Q23. What does "Qiyaas" mean?
A. Shar'i meaning of Qiyaas is to refer any "Furoo'i Masalah" (subsidiary issue,matter) to the main issue,matter in respect of 'Illat (cause,ground) and "Hukm" (command). For instance, an intricate (subsidiary) issue,matter crops up whose lawfulness or unlawfulness is not directly proved by "Qur-aan-o-Hadees". In such situation, similar issues,matters available in "Qur-aan-o-Hadees" will be consulted and researched and 'Illat and "Hukm" of whichever of them are found in agreement with it the "command" of the said main issue,matter will be applicable to the subsidiary issue,matter in question. This referral and analogical process is called "Qiyaas". Qiyaas is, in fact, a manifestation of Shari'ah which unveils hitherto covered commands of Qur-aan-o-Hadees.

No Tom, Dick or Harry can make Qiyaas. It is an exclusive job of Mujtahid (the Muslim jurist who exercises his independent opinion). Qiyaas is proved by Holy Qur-aan, Holy Prophet and words and deeds of the Prophet's companions. Therefore, its outright rejection is infidelity.